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Townsend Security Data Privacy Blog

What Data Needs to Be Encrypted in MongoDB?

Posted by Luke Probasco on Feb 23, 2018 8:11:00 AM
A Checklist for Meeting Compliance

 

What Information Do I Need to Protect with Strong Encryption?

compliance-webinar.jpgOrganizations starting an encryption project always have this question on their minds. It is a simple question, but can be hard to answer. Generally speaking, you should encrypt any information that alone, or when combined with other information, can identify a unique, individual person. This is called Personally Identifying Information, or PII. This should be your starting point, but you may need to address other information depending on the compliance regulations you must meet.

[For even more information on encrypting data in MongoDB, view our Definitive Guide to MongoDB Encryption & Key Management.]


Quicklinks:

Federal/State Laws and Personally Identifiable Information (PII)

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

Educational Information Covered by FERPA

Federal Agencies and FISMA

Medical Information for Covered Entities and HIPAA/HITECH

Payment Card Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)

Financial Data for FFIEC Compliance

 

Federal/State Laws and Personally Identifiable Information (PII)

Federal and State laws vary in terms of what they consider Personally Identifiable Information (PII), but there is a lot of commonality between them. PII is any information which either alone or when combined with other information, which can identify an individual person. Start with this list of data items:

  • Social security number
  • Credit card number
  • Bank account number
  • First name
  • Last name
  • Address
  • Zip code
  • Email address
  • Birth date
  • Password or passphrase
  • Military ID
  • Passport
  • Drivers license number
  • Vehicle license number
  • Phone and Fax numbers

 

EU General Protection Regulation (GDPR)
Under the GDPR youmust protect the personal data of an individual. The definition of “personal data” is quite broad and includes “any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (‘data subject’); an identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person”. This includes, but is not limited to:
  • Social security number
  • Credit card number
  • Bank account number
  • First name
  • Last name
  • Address
  • Zip code
  • Email address
  • Medical information
  • Birth date
  • Password or passphrase
  • Military ID
  • Passport
  • Drivers license number
  • Vehicle license number
  • Phone and Fax numbers
Personal data is broadly defined so an excess of caution should be applied to protection of individual information.
 
 
Educational Information Covered by FERPA

Educational institutions who fall under the FERPA regulations must protect Personally Identifiable Information (see above) as well as the following information:

  • Student name
  • Student ID number
  • Family member names
  • Place of birth
  • Mother’s maiden name
  • Student educational records
  • Immunization records
  • Health records
  • Individuals with Disabilities (IDEA) records
  • Attendance

 

Federal Agencies and FISMA

Federal agencies must evaluate their systems for the presence of sensitive data and provide mechanisms to insure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the information. Sensitive information is broadly defined, and includes Personally Identifiable Information (see above), as well as other information classified as sensitive by the Federal agency. Sensitive information might be defined in the following categories:

  • Medical
  • Financial
  • Proprietary
  • Contractor sensitive
  • Security management
  • And other information identified by executive order, specific law, directive, policy or regulation
 
Medical Information for Covered Entities and HIPAA/HITECH
The HIPAA / HITECH Act defines Protected Health Information to include Personally Identifying Information (see above) in addition to the following Protected Health Information (PHI):
  • Patient diagnostic information (past, present, future physical or mental health)
  • Patient treatment information
  • Patient payment information
  • Medical record numbers
  • Name
  • Street Address
  • City
  • Zip code
  • County
  • Health plan beneficiary numbers
  • Fingerprints and other biometric identifiers
  • Full facial photographs and images
  • Device identifiers and serial numbers
  • IP address numbers and web URLs
  • Any other individual identifiable information
 
Payment Card Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)
The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards (PCI DSS) require that merchants protect sensitive cardholder information from loss and use good security practices to detect and protect against security breaches.
 
If you accept or process credit card or other payment cards, you must encrypt the following data:
  • Primary Account Number (PAN)
You must also NOT store, even in encrypted format:
  • Track 1 and Track 2 data
  • Security codes (CVV, CVV2, etc.)
 
Financial Data for FFIEC Compliance
Banks, credit unions, and other financial institutions must protect Non-public Personal Information (NPI) which includes personally identifying financial information (see above). In addition to Personally Identifying Information above, you should protect:
  • Income
  • Credit score
  • Collection history
  • Family member PII and NPI

 

Encrypting Data in MongoDB
mdb-enterprise-certified-technology-partner_300x660.pngTownsend Security is helping the MongoDB community encrypt sensitive data and properly manage encryption keys. Developers who need to protect sensitive data know that storing their encryption keys within MongoDB puts their data at risk for a breach. With Alliance Key Manager for MongoDB, administrators are now able to keep their encryption keys secure by storing them remotely and only accessing them when the encryption/decryption happens. 

Alliance Key Manager for MongoDB is an enterprise key management solution that allows you to easily encrypt sensitive data with NIST-validated AES encryption and securely retrieve and manage encryption keys from Townsend Security’s FIPS 140-2 compliant Alliance Key Manager. With an easy to use interface and certifications to meet compliance requirements, you can rest assured knowing your data is secure.
 
Encryption and key management for MongoDB
 

 

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Topics: MongoDB, Compliance

Definitive Guide to VMware Encryption & Key Management
 

 

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